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Research

We are often asked what research has been conducted with neurofeedback to establish its scientific validity. There are many different modalities within the field of neurofeedback research, yet most neurofeedback or EEG biofeedback share basic similarities.  Below we have provided a list of relevant research papers grouped according to topic. Full references are provided in respect to the dedicated scientist who have carried out the research. Click on the blue text to be taken down the page to the relevant topic of interest, 'back to top' of the page links are also numerous. At the top of each listing we have displayed some relevant quotes from significant researchers in that field.
 
"In my opinion, if any medication had demonstrated such a wide spectrum of efficacy it would be universally accepted and widely used" 
  • Frank H. Duffy, M.D., Professor and Pediatric Neurologist at Harvard Medical School

Certain areas of study have been more practical for scientist to address, such areas are: 

Anxiety

 

ADD/ADHD & Attention

 

Addictions

 

Autism & Aspergers

 
 

Depression

 

Optimal Performance

 

Epilepsy

 

Acquired Brain Injury

 

Post Traumatic Stress

 

Cognitive Performance

 

Personality Disorders

 

Chronic Fatigue

 

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder            

 

Seniors Cognitive Improvement               

 

Schizophrenia                             

 

Pain & Fibromyalgia

"EEG biofeedback meets the AACAP [American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry] criteria for clinical guideline (CG) for treatment of ADHD, seizure disorders, anxiety (OCD, GAD, PTSD, phobias), depression, reading disabilities, and addictive disorders. This suggests that EEG biofeedback should always be considered as an intervention for these disorders by the clinic."   
  • Hirshberg, L.m., Chiu, S,. Frazier, J, A,. "Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective." Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 2005, Vol.14(1), pp.1-19

Anxiety

“A review of more recent research finds that pharmacologic treatment may not be as effective as previously believed. A more recent neuroscience technology, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback), seems to hold promise as a methodology for retraining abnormal brain wave patterns. It has been associated with minimal side effects and is less invasive than other methods for addressing biologic brain disorders.”
  • Hammond DC.,  Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders.  Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):105-23

“The results of (QEEG) guided neurofeedback training for anxiety in nineteen PSTD patients is analysed, along with the change in anxiety in four control patients who did not do neurofeedback. Those who did neurofeedback training experienced clinically significant reductions in anxiety, whereas there was no significant change in anxiety in the control group.”
  • Walker, J. E., Anxiety Associated With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder—The Role of Quantitative Electro- encephalograph in Diagnosis and in Guiding Neurofeedback Training to Remediate the Anxiety. Biofeedback, 2009, Vol.37(2), pp.67-70

Further Research:

  • D. Corydon H,. Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Adult Development, Vol. 12, Nos. 2/3, August 2005
  • Tansey M. A., A simple and a complex tic (Tourette’s syndrome): their response to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training. Int J Psychophysiol. 1986 Jul; 4(2): 91-97

ADD/ADHD & Attention

“In conclusion, behavioural improvements induced by NF [Neurofeedback] training in children with ADHD were maintained at a 6-month follow-up… the results confirm the notion that NF is a clinically efficacious module in the treatment of children with ADHD.”
  • Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Schlamp, D., Kratz, O., Studer, P,. Rothenberger, A., Moll, G. H., Heinrich, H.,  Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Sept, 2010, Vol.19(9), p.715(10)
“Neurofeedback treatment has been demonstrated to reduce inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, previous studies did not adequately control confounding variables or did not employ a randomized reinforcer-controlled design. This study addresses those methodological shortcomings… Parents reported significant reductions in primary ADHD symptoms, and inattention improvements in the NF group were higher compared to the control intervention (BF, d (corr) = -.94). NF training also improved attention and reaction times on the psychometric measures. The results indicate that NF effectively reduced inattention symptoms on parent rating scales and reaction time in neuropsychological tests.”
  • Bakhshayesh, A, Hänsch, S., Wyschkon, A., Rezai, M,. Esser, G., Neurofeedback in ADHD: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 2011, Vol.20(9), pp.481-91

Further Research:


  • Levesque J, Beauregard M, Mensour B.:  Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with ADD/ADHD: A functional MRI study.   Neuroscience Letters. 2006 Feb 20;394(3):216-21.
  • Chabot RJ, diMichele F, Prichep L, John ER:The clinical role of computerized EEG in the evaluation and treatment of learning and attention disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clin Neuroscience, 2001; 13: 171-186
  • Egner T, Gruzelier JH Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans.  Neuroreport 2001, 12:411-415
  • Egner T, Gruzelier JH EEG biofeedback of low bnd beta components: frequency-specific effects of variables of attention and event-related brain potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2003b, in press
  • Fisher S, Riding the Waves: Neurofeedback: A breakthrough with learning disabilities? Psychotherapy Networker, Sept/October, page 77-83. 2004 
  • Fuchs T, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W, Gruzielier JH, Kaiser J, Neurofeedback treatment for ADHD in children: a comparison with methylphenidate, Appl Psychophys Biofeedback 2003 Mar 28 (1):1-12
  • Hammond DC:  Medical justification for neurofeedback with ADD/ADHD.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 2000; 4(1), 90-93.
  • Hirshberg LM, Chiu S, Frazier JA., Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective.  Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):1-19
  • Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., Kratz, O., Studer, P., Rothenberger, A., Moll, G.H., Heinrich, H. (2009).  Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD?  A randomised controlled clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 780-789.
  • Holtman, M., Grasmann, D., Cionek-Szpak, E., Hager, V., Panzer, N., Beyer, A., Poustka, F., Stadler, C. (2009).  Spezifische wirksamkeit von neurofeedback auf die impulsivitat bei ADHS. Kindheit Und Entwicklung, 18, 95-204.
  • Kaiser DA,  Othmer S: Effect of Neurofeedback on variables of attention in a large multi-center trial.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 2000 4(1), 5-15.
  • Loo SK, EEG and neurofeedback findings in ADHD The ADHD Report, 2003,. 11:3, 1-4
  • Loo SK, Barkley RA: Clinical Utility of EEG in ADHD.  Applied Neuropsychology 2005, Vol. 12, 64-76
  • Lubar, J.F., Swartwood, M.O., Swartwood, J.N., & O’Donnell, P.H. (2005).  Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in TOVA scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance.  Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 20(1), 83-99.
  • Lubar JF: Neocortical Dynamics: implications for understanding the role of neurofeedback and related techniques for the enhancement of attention.  Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 1997 22: 111-25.
  • Lubar JF and Lubar JO: Neurofeedback assessment and treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders.  in Evans JR and Abarbanel A (eds): Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback, Academic Press 1999
  • Monastra VJ,  Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: rationale and empirical foundation.  Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):55-82, vi.
  • Monastra VJ, Lubar JF, Linden M: the development of a quantitative electroencephalographic scanning process for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: reliability and validation studies. Neuropsychology, 2001 15: 136-144.
  • Monastra VJ., Monastra DM., & George,S. . The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of ADHD. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 2002, 27(4), 231-249.
  • Nash JK, Treatment of ADHD with neurotherapy. Clinical Electroencephalography 2000, 31(1), 30-37
  • Rossiter, T.R., & La Vaque, T.J. A comparison of EEG biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  Journal of  Neurotherapy, . 1995; 1, 48-59
  • Sherlin, L., Arns, M., Lubar, J., Sokhadze, E. (2010).  A position paper on neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD. Journal of Neurofeedback, 14, 66-78.
  • Thompson L, Thompson M. Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: effectiveness in students with ADD. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1998 Dec;23(4):243-63
  • Yucha, C., & Montgomery, D. (2008).  Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback.  Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.


Addictions

“Neurofeedback-training-based neurotherapy is one of the potentially efficacious nonpharmacological treatment options for substance use disorders (SUD) in adults, but it is also a very promising as a treatment modality for adolescents, especially those with stimulant abuse and attention and conduct problems.”
  • Sokhadze, E. S., Christopher M. Tasman. A., Daniels, R., Trudeau, David Review of Rationale for Neurofeedback Application in Adolescent Substance Abusers with Comorbid Disruptive Behavioral Disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2011, Vol.15(3), pp.232-261
"Treated alcoholics with depressive syndrome showed sharp reductions in self-assesed depression… Subjects showed significant decreases on the BR scores: schizoid, avoidant, dependant, histrontic… alcohol abuse, drug abuse, psychotic thinking and psychotic depression. Twenty-one-month follow up data indicated sustained prevention of relapse in alcoholics who completed neurofeedback training.”
  • Saxby E, Peniston EG. Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1995 September 51(5) 685-93

Further Reasearch:

  • Scott, Kaiser, Othmer, Sideroff,   Effects of an EEG Biofeedback Protocol on a Mixed Substance Abusing Population. American  Journal of Alcohol Drug Abuse, Volume 31, Number 3 / 2005   Pages:  455 – 469
  • Trudeau DL., Applicability of brain wave biofeedback to substance use disorder in adolescents.  Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):125-36, vii
  • Burkett, V. S., Cummins, J. M., Dickson, R. M., & Skolnick, M. (2005). An open clinical trial utilizing real-time EEG operant conditioning as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of crack cocaine dependence. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(2), 27-48.
  • Kelly, M. J. (1997). Native Americans, neurofeedback, and substance abuse theory: Three year outcome of alpha/theta neurofeedback training in the treatment of problem drinking among Dine (Navajo) people. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), 24-60.
  • Sokhadze, E. M., Cannon R. L., & Trudeau D. L. (2008) EEG biofeedback as a treatment for Substance Use Disorders: review, rating of efficacy, and recommendations for further research. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(1), 5- 43.
  • Saxby, E., & Peniston, E. G. (1995). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: An effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 685-693.
  • Trudeau, D. L. (2005). Applicability of brain wave biofeedback to substance use disorder in adolescents. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 125-136. 
  • Trudeau, D. L. (2008) Branwave biofeedback for additive disorder.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(4), 181-183.


Autism & Aspergers

“Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in the same group of children with ASD after 12 months. The present study indicates maintenance of improvement of executive functions and social behavior after 12 months in comparison with the immediate outcomes. Neurofeedback mediated suppression of theta power is supposed to promote more flexible functioning of the brain by enhancing activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and improving flexibility of activation in the default mode network supporting the improvement of executive functions and theory of mind in ASD."
  • Kouijzer, M. E. J., de Moor, J. M. H., Gerrits, B. J. L., Buitelaar, J. K., van Schie, H. T.,  Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2009, Vol.3(2), pp.496-501

"Results. Improved ratings of ASD symptoms reflected an 89% success rate. Statistical analyses revealed significant improvement in Autistics who received Neurofeedback compared to a wait list control group. Other major findings included a 40% reduction in core ASD symptomatology (indicated by ATEC Total Scores), and 76% of the experimental group had decreased hyperconnectivity. Reduced cerebral hyperconnectivity was associated with positive clinical outcomes in this population. In all cases of reported improvement in ASD symptomatology, positive treatment outcomes were confirmed by neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment."
  • Coben, R., & Pudolsky, I. (2007).  Assessment-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 5-23.

Further Research:

  • Baruth, J.,  Casanova, M.,  El-Baz, A.,  Horrell, T.,  Mathai, G.,  Sears, L., Sokhadze, E. (2010).  Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates evoked-gamma frequency oscillations in autism spectrum disorder. Journa1 of Neurotherapy 14(3), 179 – 194.
  • Coben, R., & Myers, T. E. (2010).  The relative efficacy of connectivity guided and symptom based EEG biofeedback for autistic disorders.  Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 35(1), 13-23.
  • Coben, R. (2007).  Connectivity-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder.  Biofeedback, 35(4), 131-135.
  • Jarusiewicz, G. (2007).  Use of neurofeedback with autistic spectrum disorders.  Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback.  Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 321-339
  • Jarusiewicz, B. (2002). Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autistic spectrum: A pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(4), 39-49.
  • Knezevic, B., Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (2010).  Pilot project to ascertain the utility of Tower of London Test to assess outcomes of neurofeedback in clients with Asperger’s Syndrome.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(3), 3-19.
  • Kouijzer, M. E. UJ., de Moor, J. M. H., Gerrits, B. J. L., Buitelaar, J. K., & van Schie, H. T. (2009).  Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism.  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 496-501.
  • Pineda JA, Brang D, Hecht E, Edwards L, Carey S, Bacon M, Futagaki C, Suk D, Tom J, Birnbaum C, Rork A.(2008). Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2. 557-581. 
  • Pineda, J. A., Brang, D., Futagaki, C., Hecht, E., Grichanik, M., Wood, L., Bacon, M., & Carey, S.  (2007).  Effects of neurofeedback training on action comprehension and imitation learning.  Chapter in Puckhaber, H. L. (Ed.), New research in biofeedback.  Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers,  pp. 133-152. 
  • Scolnick, B. (2005). Effects of electroencephalogram biofeedback with Asperger's syndrome. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28(2), 159-163.
  • Sichel, A. G., Fehmi, L. G., & Goldstein, D. M. (1995). Positive outcome with neurofeedback treatment of a case of mild autism. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 60-64.
  • Sokhadze, E., Baruth, J., El-Baz, A., Horrell, T., Sokhadze, G., Carroll, T., Tasman, A., Sears, L., Casanova, M. (2010).Impaired error monitoring and correction function in Autism. Journal of Neurotherapy 14(2), 79-95.


Acquired Brain Injury

"Conclusion. Overall, findings suggest the utility of neurofeedback for the treatment of stroke, with particular gains noted in the areas of cognitive functioning, sleep quality, emotional regulation, and energy."
  • Cannon, K. B., Sherlin, L., & Lyle, R. R. (2010).  Neurofeedback efficacy in the treatment of a 43-year-old female stroke victim: a case study.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(2), 107-121.

Further Research:

  • Doppelmayr, M., Nosko, H., Pecherstorfer, T., & Fink, A.  (2007).  An attempt to increase cognitive performance after stroke with neurofeedback.  Biofeedback, 35(4), 126-130.Byers, A. P. (1995). Neurofeedback therapy for a mild head injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 22-37.
  • Duff, J. (2004). The usefulness of quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neurotherapy in the assessment and treatment of post-concussion syndrome. Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 35(4), 198-209.
  • Hoffman, D. A., Stockdale, S., & Van Egren, L. (1996a). Symptom changes in the treatment of mild traumatic brain injury using EEG neurofeedback [Abstract]. Clinical Electroencephalography, 27(3), 164.
  • Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2008).  Efficacy of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Interventions of QEEG-guided biofeedback, computers, strategies, and medications.  Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 33(2), 101-124.
  • Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 137-162.
  • Tinius, T. P., & Tinius, K. A. (2001). Changes after EEG biofeedback and cognitive retraining in adults with mild traumatic brain injury and attention deficit disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 27-44.
  • Walker, J. E. (2007).  A neurologist's experience with QEEG-guided neurofeedback following brain injury.  Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback.  Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 353-361.
  • Wing, K. (2001). Effect of neurofeedback on motor recovery of a patient with brain injury: A case study and its implications for stroke rehabilitation. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 8(3), 45-53.

Chronic Fatigue

"In the present case study, the authors applied an EEG neurofeedback biofeedback paradigm as a treatment modality with a CFS patient. Baseline data were acquired using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and qualitative and subjective ratings of cognitive improvement. Test results and clinical findings revealed improvements in the patient's cognitive abilities, functional skill level, and quality of life. The patient showed significant differences in pre- and post-test levels on the Wechsler scale."
  • James, L. C., & Folen, R. A. (1996). EEG biofeedback as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome: A controlled case report. Behavioral Medicine, 22(2), 77-81.

Further research:

  • Tansey, M. A. (1993). Neurofeedback and chronic fatigue syndrome: New findings with respect to diagnosis and treatment. CFIDS Chronicle, 9, 30-32.
  • Jensen, M.P., Sherlin, L.H., Hakimian, S., Fregni, F. (2009). Neuromodulatory approaches for chronic pain management: Research findings and clinical implications. Journal of Neurotherapy 13(4), 196 – 213.
  • Hammond, D. C. (2001). Treatment of chronic fatigue with neurofeedback and self-hypnosis. NeuroRehabilitation, 16, 295-300.
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Cognitive Performance

"The enhancement of cognitive performance was significantly larger for the neurofeedback group than for a control group who did not receive feedback."
  • Neurofeedback training of the upper alpha frequency band in EEG improves cognitive performance. Zoefel, B., Huster, R. J.v Herrmann, C. S., Neuroimage, 2011, Vol.54(2), pp.1427-1431
“On the first and fifth session, cognitive ability was tested by a mental rotation test. As a result, eleven of the fourteen subjects showed significant training success… The enhancement of cognitive performance was significantly larger for the neurofeedback group than for a control group who did not receive feedback. Thus, enhanced cognitive control went along with an increased upper alpha amplitude that was found in the neurofeedback group only. Research Highlights: Human EEG oscillations in the upper alpha frequency band are enhanced by neurofeedback. EEG-enhancement was accompanied by an improvement of performance in a cognitive task."
  • Zoefel, B., Huster, R, J,. Herrmann, C, S, Neurofeedback training of the upper alpha frequency band in EEG improves cognitive performance. Neuroimage, 2011, Vol.54(2), pp.1427-1431

Further Research:

  • Budzynski, T.H. (1996). Braining brightening: Can neurofeedback improve cognitive process? Biofeedback, 24(2), 14-17.
  • Cerra, J., Fernndez, T., Harmony T., Caballero M.I, Garcia F., Fernandez-Bouzas A., Santiago-Rodriguez E, Prado-Alcala R.A. (2006) "Follow-up study of Learning Disabled children treated with Neurofeedback or placebo." Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 37(3), 198-203.
  • Carter, J. L., & Russell, H. L. (1991). Changes in verbal performance IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere frequency control training: A pilot report. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 4(1), 66-67. 
  • Cunningham, M., & Murphy, P. (1981). The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visuospatial and creative skills in LD male adolescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14(4), 204-208.
  • Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). The temporal dynamics of electroencephalographic responses to alpha/theta neurofeedback training in healthy subjects. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(1), 43-57.
  • Fritson, K. K., Wadkins, T. A., Gerdes, P., & Hof, D. (2007).  The impact of neurotherapy on college students’ cognitive abilities and emotions.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(4), 1-9.
  • Hanslmayer, S., Sauseng, P., Doppelmayr, M., Schabus, M., & Klimesch, W. (2005).Increasing individual upper alpha by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in human subjects.Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(1), 1-10.
  • Pulvermuller F, Mohr, Schleichert H, Veit, R: Operant conditioning of left hemispheric slow cortical potentials and its effect on word processing.  Biological Psychology, 2000; 53, 177-215.
  • Vernon D, Egner T, Cooper N, Compton T, Neilands C, Sheri A, Gruzielier J, The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. Intl J Psychophys, 2003, 47: 75-86 
  • Vernon, D. J. (2005).Can neurofeedback training enhance performance? An evaluation of the evidence with implications for future research. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 347-364.
  • Vernon, D., Dempster, T., Bazanova, O., Rutterford, N., Pasqualini, M., Andersen, S.  (2009). Alpha neurofeedback training for performance enhancement: Reviewing the methodology. Journal of Neurotherapy 13(4),Pages 214 – 227.


“Currently there are twenty-one articles in neurofeedback for depression, among which only six present original experimental results. All of them report positive results with the technique.”
  • Machado D, A,. Van Deusen, A,. A new neurofeedback protocol for depression. Spanish Journal of Psychology, May, 2011, Vol.14(1), p.374(11)
“Their clinical symptoms, as assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), improved significantly. A control group that underwent a training procedure with the same cognitive strategies but without neurofeedback did not improve clinically.”
  • Linden, D. E. J., Real-Time Self-Regulation of Emotion Networks in Patients with Depression (Neurofeedback in Depression) PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(6), p.e38115

Further Research:

  • Choi, S. Won., Chi, S. E., Chung, S. Y., Kim, J. W., Ahn, C. Y., Kim, H. T., Is Alpha Wave Neurofeedback Effective with Randomized Clinical Trials in Depression? A Pilot Study.  Neuropsychobiology, 2011, Vol.63(1), p.43-51
  • Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R.. Clinical use of an alpha asymmetry neurofeedback protocol in the treatment of mood disorders: Follow-up study one to five years post therapy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2001 4(4), 11-18.
  • Hammond, D. C. (2000). Neurofeedback treatment of depression with the Roshi. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 45-56.
  • Hammond, D. C. (2004). Neurofeedback treatment of depression and anxiety. Journal of Adult Development. (in press).
  • Baehr, E., & Baehr, R. (1997). The use of neurofeedback as adjunctive therapeutic treatment for depression: Three case studies. Biofeedback, 25, 10-11.
  • Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J., & Baehr, R. (1997). The clinical use of an alpha asymmetry protocol in the neurofeedback treatment of depression. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), 10-23.
  • Saxby, E., & Peniston, E. G. (1995). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 685-693.


Epilepsy

“The clinical benefits derived from this neurofeedback training protocol, particularly in patients that are nonresponsive to pharmacotherapy, have been documented in many independent laboratories. Recent advances in computer technology have resulted in the availability of relatively inexpensive high-quality equipment for the application of neurofeedback therapy, thus presenting a viable and promising treatment alternative to the interested clinician.”
  • Egner, T., & Sterman, M. B. (2006). Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy: From basic rationale to practical application. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, Abstract. 6(2), 247-257.
“With recent improvements in quantitative EEG measurement and improved neurofeedback protocols, it has become possible in clinical practice to eliminate seizures or reduce the amount of medication required to control them.”
  • Walker JE, Kozlowski GP, Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2005, Vol.14(1), pp.163-176.
"We conclude that the research literature reviewed in this article justifies the assertion that neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy/seizure disorders constitutes a well-founded and viable alternative to anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy."
  • Sterman, M., Egner, T., Foundation and Practice of Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Epilepsy.  Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 2006, Vol.31(1), pp.21-35

Further Research:

  • Uhlmann C, Froscher W. Biofeedback treatment in patients with refractory epilepsy: Changes in depression and control orientation. Seizure 2001, 10(1), 34-38.
  • Sterman MB: Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning.  Clinical Electroencephalography, 2000;31(1), 45-55.
  • Meyer-Lindenberg A, Ziemann U, Hajak G, et al:. Transitions between dynamical states of differing stability in the human brain.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002; Aug 20;99(17):10948-53.
  • Lantz D, & Sterman MB: Neuropsychological assessment of subjects with uncontrolled epilepsy: Effects of EEG biofeedback training.  Epilepsia, 1988; 29(2), 163-171.
  • Tan, G., Thornby, J,. Hammond, D. C., Strehl, U., Canady, B., Arnemann, K., Kaiser, D.A., Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy.  Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS), 2009, Vol.40(3), pp.173-9 



Optimal Performance

“Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol… In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety.”
  • Gruzelier, J,. A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration. Cognitive Processing, 2009, Vol.10(1), pp.101-109

“Background: By enabling individuals to self-regulate their brainwave activity in the field of optimal performance in healthy individuals, neurofeedback has been found to improve cognitive and artistic performance. Here we assessed whether two distinct EEG neurofeedback protocols could develop surgical skill, given the important role this skill plays in medicine… neurofeedback training provided significant improvement in surgical technique whilst considerably reducing time on task by 26%. There was also evidence that AT training marginally reduced total surgery time, despite suboptimal training efficacies. Overall, the data set provides encouraging evidence of optimised learning of a complex medical specialty via neurofeedback training."
  • Ros, T., Moseley, M. J.,  Bloom, P. A., Benjamin, L., Parkinson, L. A., Gruzelier, J. H., Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback. BMC Neuroscience, July 24, 2009, Vol.10, p.87

“The correct feedback group significantly improved performance… The control group showed no significant pre–post differences in performance… Results support the use of known relationships between EEG and performance to provide biofeedback.”
  • Landers, D, M., Petruzzello, S, J., Salazar, W; Crews, D, J.  The influence of electrocortical biofeedback on performance in pre-elite archers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Vol 23(1), Jan 1991, 123-129.

Further Research:

  • Raymond, J., Sajid, I., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2005). Biofeedback and dance performance: A preliminary investigation. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(1), 65-74.
  • Thompson, T., Steffert, T., Ros, T., Leach, J., & Gruzelier, J. (2008).  EEG applications for sport and performance.  Methods, 45, 279-288.
  • Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003). Ecological validity of neurofeedback: Modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance. NeuroReport, 14(9), 1221-1224.
  • Arns, M., Kleinnijenhuis, M., Fallahpour, K., & Bretler, R. (2007).  Golf performance enhancement and real-life neurofeedback training using personalized event-locked EEG profiles.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(4), 11-18.
  • Mason, L. A., & Brownback, T. S. (2001). Optimal functioning training with EEG biofeedback for clinical populations: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 33-44.
  • Gruzelier, J., Egner, T., & Vernon, D. (2006).Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance. Progress in Brain Research,159, 421-431.
  • Gruzelier, J. (2009).  A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration.  Cognitive Processing, 10 (Suppl 1), S101-109.
  • Boynton, T. (2001). Applied research using alpha/theta training for enhancing creativity and well-being. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 5-18.
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

“Thirty-three out of 36 subjects who received NF [neurofeedback] training showed clinical improvement according to the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). The Minnesota multiphasic inventory (MMPI) was administered before and after treatment to 17 of the subjects. The MMPI results showed significant improvements not only in OCD measures, but all of the MMPI scores showed a general decrease. Finally, according to the physicians' evaluation of the subjects using the clinical global impression scale (CGI), 33 of the 36 subjects were rated as improved. Thirty-six of the subjects were followed for an average of 26 months after completing the study. According to follow-up interviews conducted with them and/or their family members 19 of the subjects maintained the improvements in their OCD symptoms. This study provides good evidence for the efficacy of NF treatment in OCD.”
  • Sürmeli, T,. Ertem, A. Obsessive compulsive disorder and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a case series. Clinical EEG and neuroscience : official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS), 2011, Vol.42(3), pp.195-201


“An MMPI was administered pre-post to one patient, and she showed dramatic improvements not only in OCD symptoms, but also in depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and in becoming extroverted rather than introverted and withdrawn. In follow-ups of the two cases at 15 and 13 months after completion of treatment, both patients were maintaining improvements in OCD symptoms as measured by the Padua Inventory and as externally validated through contacts with family members.”
  • Hammond, D. C. (2003). QEEG-guided neurofeedback in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 7(2), 25-52.

Further research:

  • Hammond, D. C. (2004). Treatment of the obsessional subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder with neurofeedback. Biofeedback, 32, 9-12.
  • Hammond C. QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Journal of Neurotherapy, 2003; Vol 7(2)


Post Traumatic Stress

“Collectively, this approach has been found to be much better tolerated than traditional exposure therapies. In addition, it is helpful in shedding of substance dependenceies that are common in treatment-resistant PTSD.”
  • Othmer, S,. Susan F,. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder—The Neurofeedback Remedy  Biofeedback, 2009, Vol.37(1), pp.24-31

Further Research:

  • Muller, J., Karl, A., Denke C,. Mathier, F., Dittmann, J., Rohleder, N., Knaevelsrud, C., Biofeedback for Pain Management in Traumatised Refugees. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Vol 38, No 3, pp. 184–190, 2009
  • Peniston, E. G., Marrinan, D. A., Deming, W. A., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1993). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Medical Psychotherapy, 6, 37-50.
  • Sokhadze, T. M., Stewart, C. M., & Hollifield, M. (2007).  Integrating cognitive neuroscience and cognitive behavioral treatment with neurofeedback therapy in drug addiction comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder: A conceptual review.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(2), 13-44.


Pain & Fibromyalgia

"This data supports the efficacy of NFB as a treatment for pain, psychological symptoms and impaired quality of life associated with fibromyalgia."
  •  Neurofeedback Intervention in Fibromyalgia Syndrome; a Randomized, Controlled, Rater Blind Clinical Trial. Kayıran, Sadi ; Dursun, Erbil ; Dursun, Nigar ; Ermutlu, Numan ; Karamürsel, Sacit Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 2010, Vol.35(4), pp.293-302

"Most of the symptoms were decreased after ten sessions. There was also improvement in all of the scales after the treatment. The results of the present study may suggest NFB training as a novel treatment method in FMS."
  • Kayrian, S., Dursun, E., Ermutlu, N., Dursun, N., & Karamursel, S.  (2007). Neurofeedback in fibromyalgia syndrome.   The Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology, 19(3), 47-53.Jensen, M. P., Grierson, C., Tracy-Smith, V., Bacigalupi, S. C., Othmer, S. (2007).  Neurofeedback treatment for pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 45-53. 

Further Research:

  • Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study Stokes, Deborah A ; Lappin, Martha S Behavioral and Brain Functions : BBF, 2010, Vol.6, p.9-9
  • Tansey, M. A. (1991). A neurobiological treatment for migraine: The response of four cases of migraine to EEG biofeedback training. Headache Quarterly: Current Treatment & Research, 90-96.
  • Kropp, P., Siniatchkin, M., & Gerber, W. D. (2002). On the pathophysiology of migraine: Links for Aempirically based treatment@ with neurofeedback. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 27(3), 203-213.
  • Mueller, H. H., Donaldson, C. C. S., Nelson, D. V., & Layman, M. (2001). Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: A clinical outcomes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7), 933-952.
  • Donaldson, C. C. S., Sella, G. E., & Mueller, H. H. (1998). Fibromyalgia: A retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5 (6), 116-127.
  • Mueller, H. H., Donaldson, C. C. S., Nelson, D. V., & Layman, M. (2001). Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: A clinical outcomes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7), 933-952.
  • Brown, V. W. (1995 ). Neurofeedback and Lyme's Disease: A clinical application of the five phase model of CNS functional transformation and integration. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 60-73.
  • Packard, R. C., & Ham, L. R. (1995). EEG biofeedback in the treatment of Lyme Disease: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(3), 22-30.



Personality Disorders

“Neurofeedback can change the view of psychiatrists and psychologists in the future regarding the treatment of personality disorders. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of neurofeedback treatment in antisocial personality disorders”
  • Surmeli, T,. Ertem, A. QEEG guided neurofeedback therapy in personality disorders: 13 case studies. Clinical EEG and neuroscience : official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS), 2009, Vol.40(1), pp.5-10
“Neurofeedback training coupled with internal self-exploration served as an effective treatment modality for the unification of patients with Dissociative disorder.”
  • Manchester, C., Allen, T., & Tachiki, K. H. (1998). Treatment of dissociative identity disorder with neurotherapy and group self-exploration. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(4), 40-53.

Further Research:

  • Malkowicz, D., Martinez, D. (2009).   Role of quantitative electroencephalography, neurotherapy, and neuroplasticity in recovery from neurological and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy 13(3),176 – 188.
  • Peniston, EG, Kulkosky, PJ, VA Hospital:  Alcoholic Personality and Alpha-theta Brainwave Training.  Medical Psychotherapy, 1990, Volume 3, pp.37-55
  • Rosenfeld JP: An EEG Biofeedback Protocol for Affective Disorders.  Clin Electroencephalography 2000:7-12 
  • Schore A, Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self,., Laurence Erlbaum, 1994
  • Schore A, Affect Dysregulation and Disorders of the Self,.,Norton, 2003
  • Schore A, Affect Regulation and the Repair of Self, Norton, 2003



Post Traumatic Stress

“Collectively, this approach has been found to be much better tolerated than traditional exposure therapies. In addition, it is helpful in shedding of substance dependenceies that are common in treatment-resistant PTSD.”

Further Research:

  • Peniston, E. G., Marrinan, D. A., Deming, W. A., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1993). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Medical Psychotherapy, 6, 37-50.
  • Sokhadze, T. M., Stewart, C. M., & Hollifield, M. (2007).  Integrating cognitive neuroscience and cognitive behavioral treatment with neurofeedback therapy in drug addiction comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder: A conceptual review.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(2), 13-44.
  • Biofeedback for Pain Management in Traumatised Refugees. Julia Muller, Anke Karl, Claudia Denke, Fabienne Mathier, Jennifer Dittmann, Nicolas Rohleder and Christine Knaevelsrud. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Vol 38, No 3, pp. 184–190, 2009
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Schizophrenia

“The author obtained progress using neurofeedback with more than 70 hospitals in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Improvements were seen in the EEG patterns and in cognitive, affective and behavioral patterns that often resulted in successful release from the hospital to live in the community. A 2-year follow up found that positive changes were sustained.”
  • Bolea, A, S,. Neurofeedback Treatment of Chronic Inpatient Schizophrenia. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2010, Vol.14(1), pp.47-54
“Of the remaining 48 participants 47 showed clinical improvement after NF treatment, based on changes in their PANSS scores. The participants who were able to take the MMPI [Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory] and the TOVA [Test of Variables of Attention] showed significant improvements in these measures as well. Forty were followed up for more than 22 months, 2 for 1 year, 1 for 9 months, and 3 for between 1 and 3 months after completion of NF. Overall NF was shown to be effective. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of NF in schizophrenia."
  • Surmeli, T,. Ertem, A,. Eralp, E,. Kos, I, H,. Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a clinical case series. Clinical EEG and neuroscience : official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS), 2012, Vol.43(2), pp.133-44

Further Research:

  • Mccarthy J, S,. Taking Back the Brain: Could Neurofeedback Training Be Effective for Relieving Distressing Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Patients With Schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2012, Vol. 38(4), pp.678-682
  • Bolea, A. S. (2010).  Neurofeedback treatment of chronic inpatient schizophrenia.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(1), 47-54.
  • Donaldson, M., Moran, D., & Donaldson, S. (2010, Spring).  Schizophrenia in retreat.  NeuroConnections Newsletter, 19-23.
  • Gruzelier, J. (2000). Self regulation of electrocortical activity in schizophrenia and schizotypy: A review. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 23-29.
  • Gruzelier, J., Hardman, E., Wild, J., Zaman, R., Nagy, A., & Hirsch, S. (1999). Learned control of interhemispheric slow potential negativity in schizophrenia. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 34, 341-348.
  • Schneider, F., Rockstroh, B., Heimann, H. et al. (1992). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Schizophrenia. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 17, 277-292.



Seniors Cognitive Impairment

  • Angelakis, Efthymios ; Stathopoulou, Stamatina ; Frymiare, Jennifer L ; Green, Deborah L ; Lubar, Joel F ; Kounios (2007). EEG neurofeedback: A brief overview and an example of peak alpha frequency training for cognitive enhancement in the elderly. Clinical Neuropsychology, 21(1), 110-129.
  • Budzynski, T., Budzynski, H. K., &l Tang, H-Y. (2007).  Brain brightening: restoring the aging mind.  Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback.  Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 231-265.
  • Albert, A. O., Andrasik, F., Moore, J. L., & Dunn, B. R. (1998). Theta/beta training for attention, concentration and memory improvement in the geriatric population. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 23(2), 109.

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"Although research in nonlinear dynamic or chaotic systems consistently has revealed the regulating power of feedback in complex systems, individuals accustomed to more traditional, linear-based thinking in western medicine and psychology may find it hard to believe that merely showing the brain to itself has the same strength of effect as a carefully controlled psychoactive medication." 
  • Laurence M. Hirshberg, Ph.D., Sufen Chiu, MD, PhD, and Jean Frazier, MD. 


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